A printing technique from a plate, where printing elements are incised into the surface. Spacing elements are above the printing ones. A viscous ink fills in the recessed areas of the printing plate and is transferred to the substrate under high pressure (80–100 kg/cm2). The pressure forces the substrate into the recessed areas.

Characteristic features of the prints:

  • A thick ink layer which produces relief;
  • A wide range of tone transfers due to different depth and width of strokes;
  • Substrate deformation (inward bulging from reverse side);
  • Ink creeping between paper fibers at strokes edges (fig. 1).

Polymer banknotes may not have ink creeping.

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