A printing technique, in which printing and spacing elements are located almost in the same plane. The inks are transferred to the substrate directly from the printing plate. Printing and spacing elements are separated due to different physicochemical properties: the printing elements of the plate retain ink but repel water, while spacing elements retain water, get moistened and repel ink (fig. 1).

The characteristic features of the prints:

  • Absence of relief;
  • Even saturation and density of the ink along the surface;
  • Slightly blurred contours, thin strokes are broken.

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