Holes in the substrate, which are arranged in a certain order. They can form a pattern (a holder’s portrait, a document number, etc.).

Perforation can be laser or mechanical.

Laser perforations are created with a laser beam. In this case the holes are of proper shape, have smooth edges and no ridges. The diameter of laser-perforated holes is smoothly reduced from the first perforated page of the document to the last one. Traces of burning left by the laser beam are visible around the edges of the holes. The holes may differ in form: round, triangular, square, asterisk-shaped, etc.

Mechanical perforation is performed with the help of needles or pins. Consequently, ridges are felt to touch on the back of the substrate.

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